What Have Psychologists (And Others) Discovered About the Process of Scientific Discovery?

We describe four major approaches to the study of science–historical accounts of scientific discoveries, psychological experiments with nonscientists working on tasks related to scientific discoveries, direct observation of ongoing scientific laboratories, and computational modeling of scientific discovery processes–by viewing them through the lens of the theory of human problem solving. We compare and contrast the different approaches, indicate their complementarities, and provide examples from each approach that converge on a set of principles of scientific discovery.

[1]  Nancy J. Nersessian,et al.  Faraday to Einstein: Constructing Meaning in Scientific Theories , 1984 .

[2]  The nature of insight , 1996 .

[3]  M. May,et al.  From Historical Case Studies to Systematic Methods of Discovery , 1995 .

[4]  Corinne Zimmerman The development of scientific reasoning skills. , 2000 .

[5]  Hans Krebs: The Formation of a Scientific Life 1900-1933, vol 1 , 1992 .

[6]  John R. Anderson,et al.  The generality/specificity of expertise in scientific reasoning , 1999, Cogn. Sci..

[7]  The formation of a scientific life, 1900-1933 , 1991 .

[8]  D. Fisher The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology , 1979 .

[9]  Philip W. Anderson,et al.  WHAT MAD PURSUIT. A Personal View of Scientific Discovery. , 1989 .

[10]  Kevin Dunbar,et al.  Concept Discovery in a Scientific Domain , 1993, Cogn. Sci..

[11]  D. Klahr,et al.  Heuristics for Scientific Experimentation: A Developmental Study , 1993, Cognitive Psychology.

[12]  Frieeland Judson Horace The eighth day of creation , 1979 .

[13]  J. Monod,et al.  Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins. , 1961, Journal of molecular biology.

[14]  Herbert A. Simon,et al.  Laboratory Replication of Scientific Discovery Processes , 1990, Cogn. Sci..

[15]  David Klahr,et al.  Dual Space Search During Scientific Reasoning , 1988, Cogn. Sci..

[16]  P. Thagard,et al.  Ulcers and Bacteria I: Discovery and Acceptance , 1998 .


[18]  Herbert A. Simon,et al.  The Processes of Scientific Discovery: The Strategy of Experimentation , 1988, Cogn. Sci..

[19]  Howard Greisdorf,et al.  Exploring Science: The Cognition and Development of Discovery Processes , 2003, J. Documentation.

[20]  H. Simon,et al.  Studies of Scientific Discovery: Complementary Approaches and Convergent Findings , 1999 .