Enhancing the Performance of Maximum-Likelihood Gaussian EDAs Using Anticipated Mean Shift

Many Estimation---of---Distribution Algorithms use maximum-likelihood (ML) estimates. For discrete variables this has met with great success. For continuous variables the use of ML estimates for the normal distribution does not directly lead to successful optimization in most landscapes. It was previously found that an important reason for this is the premature shrinking of the variance at an exponential rate. Remedies were subsequently successfully formulated (i.e. Adaptive Variance Scaling (AVS) and Standard---Deviation Ratio triggering (SDR)). Here we focus on a second source of inefficiency that is not removed by existing remedies. We then provide a simple, but effective technique called Anticipated Mean Shift (AMS) that removes this inefficiency.

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