Configural representations in transverse patterning with a hippocampal model

The hippocampus is necessary in both humans and rats for learning configural representations in tasks such as transverse patterning. The transverse patterning task, (A+B-, B+C-, C+A-), requires representing individual stimuli in the context of other stimuli. This paper extends a previous application to rat data [INNS World Congress on Neural Networks, 1995; Biol Cybern 6 (1998a) 203] by applying a model of the CA3 region of the hippocampus to human data. A decision function is also added that enables the system to choose among training items. Analysis of the simulations show that configural representations are formed by unique neural codes that depend on temporal and stimuli context. Based on the simulations, we hypothesize that configural representations in biological networks depend on a proper balance of input and context representations. Furthermore, the division of labor between functions in the model is a specific working hypothesis that in learning this task the hippocampus specializes in sequence prediction and the decision function evaluates the predictions.

[1]  W. Levy A computational approach to hippocampal function , 1989 .

[2]  E. Rolls The orbitofrontal cortex and reward. , 2000, Cerebral cortex.

[3]  L. Squire,et al.  A Neostriatal Habit Learning System in Humans , 1996, Science.

[4]  James L. McClelland,et al.  Considerations arising from a complementary learning systems perspective on hippocampus and neocortex , 1996, Hippocampus.

[5]  K. Hikosaka,et al.  Delay activity of orbital and lateral prefrontal neurons of the monkey varying with different rewards. , 2000, Cerebral cortex.

[6]  W. Levy,et al.  Temporal contiguity requirements for long-term associative potentiation/depression in the hippocampus , 1983, Neuroscience.

[7]  R. Elliott,et al.  Dissociable functions in the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from human neuroimaging studies. , 2000, Cerebral cortex.

[8]  R. Sutherland,et al.  The hippocampal formation is necessary for rats to learn and remember configural discriminations , 1989, Behavioural Brain Research.

[9]  M. Shadlen,et al.  Neural correlates of a decision in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the macaque , 1999, Nature Neuroscience.

[10]  J. Tanji,et al.  Behavioral planning in the prefrontal cortex , 2001, Current Opinion in Neurobiology.

[11]  H. Eichenbaum,et al.  The Hippocampus, Memory, and Place Cells Is It Spatial Memory or a Memory Space? , 1999, Neuron.

[12]  H Eichenbaum,et al.  The hippocampus and transverse patterning guided by olfactory cues. , 1998, Behavioral neuroscience.

[13]  James L. McClelland,et al.  Hippocampal conjunctive encoding, storage, and recall: Avoiding a trade‐off , 1994, Hippocampus.

[14]  William B. Levy,et al.  A Hippocampal-like neural network model solves the transitive inference problem , 1998 .

[15]  Acquisition of classically conditioned-related activity in the hippocampus is affected by lesions of the cerebellar interpositus nucleus. , 1990 .

[16]  R. O’Reilly,et al.  Conjunctive representations in learning and memory: principles of cortical and hippocampal function. , 2001, Psychological review.

[17]  H. Eichenbaum,et al.  Two functional components of the hippocampal memory system , 1994, Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

[18]  James M. Bower Computational Neuroscience: Trends in Research , 1996 .

[19]  J. Hollerman,et al.  Reward processing in primate orbitofrontal cortex and basal ganglia. , 2000, Cerebral cortex.

[20]  E. Miller,et al.  An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. , 2001, Annual review of neuroscience.

[21]  William B. Levy,et al.  Setting the Activity Level in Sparse Random Networks , 1994, Neural Computation.

[22]  M. Mishkin,et al.  Effects of orbital frontal and anterior cingulate lesions on object and spatial memory in rhesus monkeys , 1997, Neuropsychologia.

[23]  G. Schoenbaum,et al.  Integrating orbitofrontal cortex into prefrontal theory: common processing themes across species and subdivisions. , 2001, Learning & memory.

[24]  J W Rudy,et al.  Rats with damage to the hippocampal-formation are impaired on the transverse-patterning problem but not on elemental discriminations. , 1995, Behavioral neuroscience.

[25]  Timothy C. Rickard,et al.  Losing Their Configural Mind: Amnesic Patients Fail on Transverse Patterning , 1998, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.

[26]  Karl Magnus Petersson,et al.  A Dynamic Role of the Medial Temporal Lobe during Retrieval of Declarative Memory in Man , 1997, NeuroImage.

[27]  Ivan Toni,et al.  The prefrontal cortex: response selection or maintenance within working memory? , 2000, 5th IEEE EMBS International Summer School on Biomedical Imaging, 2002..

[28]  William B. Levy,et al.  Entorhinal/dentate excitation of CA3: A critical variable in hippocampal models , 2000, Neurocomputing.

[29]  Geoffrey E. Hinton,et al.  A Learning Algorithm for Boltzmann Machines , 1985, Cogn. Sci..

[30]  R. Passingham,et al.  The prefrontal cortex: response selection or maintenance within working memory? , 2000, 5th IEEE EMBS International Summer School on Biomedical Imaging, 2002..

[31]  Nestor A. Schmajuk,et al.  Purposive behavior and cognitive mapping: a neural network model , 1992, Biological Cybernetics.

[32]  C. Cavada,et al.  The anatomical connections of the macaque monkey orbitofrontal cortex. A review. , 2000, Cerebral cortex.

[33]  R. Sutherland,et al.  Configural association theory and the hippocampal formation: An appraisal and reconfiguration , 1995, Hippocampus.

[34]  L R Squire,et al.  Impaired transverse patterning in human amnesia is a special case of impaired memory for two-choice discrimination tasks. , 1999, Behavioral neuroscience.

[35]  W B Levy,et al.  A sequence predicting CA3 is a flexible associator that learns and uses context to solve hippocampal‐like tasks , 1996, Hippocampus.

[36]  William B. Levy,et al.  A neural network solution to the transverse patterning problem depends on repetition of the input code , 1998, Biological Cybernetics.

[37]  R J Dolan,et al.  Encoding and retrieval in human medial temporal lobes: An empirical investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) , 1999, Hippocampus.

[38]  Ali A. Minai,et al.  Latent Attractors: A Model for Context-Dependent Place Representations in the Hippocampus , 2000, Neural Computation.

[39]  Patrick D. Roberts,et al.  Spike timing dependent synaptic plasticity in biological systems , 2002, Biological Cybernetics.

[40]  J W Rudy,et al.  A comparison of kainic acid plus colchicine and ibotenic acid-induced hippocampal formation damage on four configural tasks in rats. , 1995, Behavioral neuroscience.

[41]  M. Gluck,et al.  Hippocampal mediation of stimulus representation: A computational theory , 1993, Hippocampus.

[42]  R. Passingham,et al.  Specialisation within the prefrontal cortex: the ventral prefrontal cortex and associative learning , 2000, Experimental Brain Research.

[43]  B. McNaughton,et al.  Comparison of spatial and temporal characteristics of neuronal activity in sequential stages of hippocampal processing. , 1990, Progress in brain research.

[44]  J. Disterhoft,et al.  Sequence of single neuron changes in CA1 hippocampus of rabbits during acquisition of trace eyeblink conditioned responses. , 1997, Journal of neurophysiology.

[45]  M. Gluck,et al.  Interactive memory systems in the human brain , 2001, Nature.

[46]  J. Steinmetz,et al.  Acquisition of classically conditioned-related activity in the hippocampus is affected by lesions of the cerebellar interpositus nucleus. , 1990, Behavioral neuroscience.

[47]  Robert S. Astur,et al.  Configural learning in humans: The transverse patterning problem , 1998, Psychobiology.

[48]  S. Wiener,et al.  Reward value invariant place responses and reward site associated activity in hippocampal neurons of behaving rats , 2003, Hippocampus.

[49]  Michael Van Elzakker,et al.  Transitivity, flexibility, conjunctive representations, and the hippocampus. I. An empirical analysis , 2003, Hippocampus.

[50]  D. Signorini,et al.  Neural networks , 1995, The Lancet.

[51]  P. Best,et al.  Place cells and silent cells in the hippocampus of freely-behaving rats , 1989, The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.

[52]  Michael J. Frank,et al.  Transitivity, flexibility, conjunctive representations, and the hippocampus. II. A computational analysis , 2003, Hippocampus.

[53]  P. Goldman-Rakic,et al.  Dual pathways connecting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal cortex in the rhesus monkey , 1984, Neuroscience.